In recent years, it has become obvious that deterministic optimization of structures no longer is appropriate. Increasing demands with respect to safety, reliability and quality in structural engineering require the integration of probabilistic phenomena as well as the consideration of real-world stochastic processes induced in the structures. Within the present contribution two distinct research fields are discussed in which the embedding of stochastics and probability is absolutely mandatory. The first field is the reliability-based and lifetime-centered structural optimization, the second is the semi-probabilistic structural optimization regarding geometric imperfections inherent in structural systems.
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