Determination of naphazoline hydrochloride in biological and pharmaceutical samples by a quantum dot-assisted chemiluminescence system using response-surface methodology.

Abstract

A simple and highly sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) method is reported for the determination of naphazoline hydrochloride (NH). It was found that the weak CL from the reaction of luminol and KIO4 in an alkaline medium could be highly amplified by cysteine-capped cadmium telluride quantum dots (QDs) and the enhanced CL was effectively quenched by NH and this finding was utilized as a basis for the determination of NH. The QDs were synthesized in aqueous medium and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV-vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy. A possible mechanism was proposed for the CL system based on radical identification experiments, along with CL spectrum of the system. The experimental parameters were optimized by the reliable response surface methodology (RSM). Under the optimized experimental conditions, the proposed method allowed the determination of NH over the range of 5.0 × 10(-10) -2.0 × 10(-7) mol/L (r(2) = 0.9993, n = 10). The precision (RSD%) of the method, obtained from five replicate determinations of 2.0 and 150 nmol/L NH, was found to be 1.0% and 1.3%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the determination of NH in pharmaceutical formulations and human urine and serum samples with results corroborated with the aid of those obtained from a standard method.

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